If I ask a question that gets closed for some reasons (lets say the question is too broad) and edit it to be more specific, would it remain as a question from a day ago, or would people see the question again after the edits?
An edit bumps the question to the top of the front page and also to the top of the questions list, if sorted by activity. So yes, people will see it again and can look at your changes to decide whether to vote to reopen.
Further, an edit from the author puts a question that's "on hold" (closed for fewer than five days) in the reopen queue, where reviewers can also look at your changes and decide whether to vote to reopen. This is why the best response to a question being put on hold is an edit that addresses the issues that were raised -- you get visibility in all of these ways, which you wouldn't get if you respond in comments.
If the question is voted net -4 or lower, it disappears from the front page (but not from the active list), so if the question is voted quite low and the edit is intended to fix whatever caused the question to be downvoted, then drawing attention to the edit in some other way may be needed. Possibilities may be to ping people who have commented explaining why they downvoted notifying them of the edit, to bring the question up in chat (if/once you have the reputation to talk in chat), or to bring the question up on Meta.