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10 Answers 10


In accordance with http://meta.worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/1728/sandbox-overflow, answers containing graduated questions will be deleted. This is designed to be a repository for all those questions that have graduated. It is a community wiki answer, so add in your question here, at the end of the list once it is posted on the main site!

  1. Steam Powered Hammer
  2. Can I have droplets of fluids that aren't... well... droplets?
  3. Resources For Building A Fictional Language [DELETED]
  4. How to modify bee physiology to be able to produce firehoney given nectar that is (magically) flammable?
  5. How can I realistically make a worldwide government that works with my fictional world with different magical races?
  6. How To Make an Earth with 27 Suns Work, Attempt Two: Orbital Stability
  7. Best material for windsilk
  8. How can humans retain the benefits of sleep through meditation?
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  10. Ringed planet: Reality check on ring-shadow visuals
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  13. Metal-Feathered Macaw Viability Part 1: How Can It Fly?
  14. How can a single clergy rule over a religion that has different interpretations of its deity?
  15. Sugar-bomb tree mechanics
  16. Slowing or Averting Global Warming With the Help of Elemental Powers: Part 1 (Fire)
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  18. Metal-Feathered Macaw Viability Part 2: Best Wing Shape?
  19. Anatomically Correct Siren?
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  21. The flying state, estimating an "ideal" size
  22. How can I use magic to make childbirth easier?
  23. Weaponry made from extreme light-weight steel: swords and daggers
  24. Designing venom glands for an elephant: misting
  25. Can using zombies for labor be more cost effective for an employer than a living worker?
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  27. How long should an elven generation be?
  28. Music Dragonfly via Perforations in Wings
  29. What required secondary powers does my speedster need in order to be able to accelerate at 2,250 ft/s^2 without harmful effects?
  30. Restricting antimatter - practical rather than legal measures
  31. Radiation Levels and Effects on Planet with 27 Suns
  32. Regrowing body parts: What are the costs?
  33. How can chi be used to preserve a man's fertility? [DELETED]
  34. Kidnapping Fire-Slugs
  35. Natural barriers around medieval towns
  36. Quick solutions to a modern warning placed on the surface of a planet for future generations
  37. I travel back in time: how could I know when I landed?
  38. To Conquer the Earth by Appearing Ship
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  44. How to combat magic as science?
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  46. Should certain tags automatically require answers to use SI Units rather than other, more traditional, systems of measurement?
  47. Extinction Equilibrium: 50%
  48. Fastest way for an invincible young immortal to make $1 million USD?
  49. https://worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/q/121447
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  56. What is a usable formula for determining the necessary strength of a planet’s magnetic field for it to be habitable?
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how can a planet's radiation cause sterility in the population, but not be fatal

My setting takes place on a planet that has high level of radiation due to a factor unknown to the population. This factor is not man-made, but due to some change in the planet's environment. As a result, a large percentage of people over have become sterile. The range is as high as 50-70%. This severely hurts population growth. However, the radiation doesn't affect people in any other way, and infertile people don't suffer any other effects from it, such as cancer, pain, etc.

How could these parameters come to be? What factors would need to be met on a planet for this to happen realistically?

  • $\begingroup$ Hi Incognito, I think this is a good question and pretty much ready for Main. One recommendation - I have a little background in biology, and I'm not sure it's possible to do what you're interested in, so I might rephrase to ask "is this possible" and reality-check that. Once you've established that it's possible for radiation poisoning to cause sterility without fatality, I'd ask a followup asking how those conditions could arise on a natural planet. Otherwise, I suspect you'll largely get frame-challenges that tell you it's impossible. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Dec 12 '18 at 20:38
  • $\begingroup$ Hi Incognito, this is a reminder about keeping the Sandbox clean: are you still working on this draft? If so, please edit it to show how we may further help you. If not, please edit your draft to shorten it to something like "Not posted: title" and delete it. The current guidelines are that a draft is eligible for deletion after 30 days without an edit from the OP and a comment like this one for at least 7 days. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 10 at 20:16

Economically feasible hard sci-fi non-microscopic wormhole


In my hard sci-fi settings, there is an advanced Type II Civilization, that are progressing toward Type III Civilization (yes, I am referring to Kardashev Scale). They are sprawling across the galaxy with relativistic ships, generational ships, and perhaps counless unmanned Von Neumann probes (but there is no faster than light travel). Most are under the rule of benevolent (or even malevolent) AI Gods, that also contributes in development of large scale projects and scientific advancements. Along with it are plenty of megastructures on astronomical scales, including Dyson Swarms and many esoteric megastructures we might not be able to comprehend their functions at all.

One of the advancement they achieve is the introduction of economically feasible stargates. Apparently the AI Gods managed to solve most technical issues with wormholes, including development of stargates with sufficiently small negative mass requirements, and of significant size that most starships can pass through. They are connecting major star systems and clusters, and so many developed systems possess stargates of enormous size, up to several kilometers wide, but typically stargates are about less than kilometer in size.

The stargate is supposedly based on Thorne-Morris wormhole, modified slightly by Kuhfittig to allow arbitrarily small requirements of exotic matter. However (call me lazy but...) I have no idea what the equations inside those papers mean.


For my worldbuilding purpose, I want to know how to calculate the gate's mass, given its throat radius, and how large is the separation between the throat and the transit station (a large radius of space from throat is supposedly asymptotically flat), so we comes with this question: how to calculate the mass of a stargate, given desired radius is known?


  • The question seeks answers that could devise a wormhole given certain radius, that requires arbitrarily small amount of exotic matter. Hopefully, for a gate of some kilometers big, its mass is around the same mass as Earth's moon, and ideally it should be less than Earth-mass.

  • Answers that describe the behavior of said gate is weighed up. Especially, on stability (for example, mass limit of objects that can safely traverse a gate of certain radius, or when the gate collapsed, what would happen to the exotic matter, and would it create a black hole of what size?), and distance of the transit station from the throat (apparently, the wormhole requires asymptotically flat space around the throat).

  • Answers that are based on the cited papers and sources are preferred, but if there is any other paper that could produce gates with more desirable properties (smaller mass for a given radius is an example, or perhaps without the need of exotic matter!), they are too, appreciated.

  • Regarding traversable wormhole, I consider this to be the standard. So answers must produce wormholes that are symmetrical and static, containing a throat that connects two asymptotically flat regions of spacetime, no event horizon, bearable tidal forces, reasonable transit time, stable against perturbations, and feasible mass requirements.

  • For the purpose of this question, assume that wormhole is not impossible, and exotic matter of some form can be obtained. Also, to solve problems with the existence of wormholes implies possibility of time travel, assume that it is impossible to arrange wormholes into time machine, and any wormholes that could lead to violation of causality would be unstable and collapse (in another words, chronology protection conjecture is assumed true).

  • The answer must give a mention on whether or not it is using geometrized unit system or in SI Units. It is preferable if the answer is to provide conversion to SI Units for its conclusion.


Probably unrelated, but I consider that the stargate in question is Medium-Exotic-Region Wormhole, or even Small-Exotic-Region Wormhole according to this answer. I don't know whether or not it will change the property of said wormhole, but I read somewhere (I can't find the link) that extending the exotic region into larger volume of space equals increased mass. By that logic I suspected that smaller region of exotic matter means smaller mass. And because the answer stated that if the exotic matter is restricted so closely to the throat, it is "absurdly benign", I think, it is a safer bet that the exotic matter would be loosely restricted to the throat (which, is also how Kuhfittig approached the feasibility of a wormhole with arbitrarily small exotic requirements of exotic matter, in the cited paper).

About the mass of a wormhole, as first mentioned by Dubukay on sandbox, I discovered that the mass of a wormhole is its ADM Mass. Perhaps this is also unrelated, but I discovered this answer, that explained that a wormhole gains mass of the incoming object in the entrance mouth, and lost equivalent mass of the out-coming object from the exit mouth.

[Sandbox note: I decided not to put it on physics.SE as the purpose of this question is for worldbuilding. I have a fictional structure in my world that have gates surrounding it, but I have no idea on how to calculate the mass of said gate, and what properties it might have. If it is not clear enough, please do comment.]

[Latest edit: science-based tag removed]

  • $\begingroup$ Hi Hendrik, this is an intense question! I think it's a good idea to at least try posting it here before Physics, as they'd expect you to strip out most of the worldbuilding details and we've got some good physicists here too. Some comments - given that the wormholes must use negative mass in some way, does it still make sense to ask about their absolute mass? Surely you could make the stargates any mass you'd like by adding or subtracting negative mass. I think that hard-science is the level of detail you're hoping for - science-based will likely engender too much unsupported postulation. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 10 at 20:48
  • $\begingroup$ @Dubukay The impression I got is that the aggregate of negative and positive mass must be kept positive, with negative mass only sufficient to keep the wormhole open (and that I don't think it is feasible for the transit station to orbit a gate with a negative mass). Also, as posited in the question, I want a wormhole that requires arbitrarily small amount of exotic matter, so if it is possible, minimize the use of negative mass, yet still have a working wormhole. Thank you for your clarification that it needs hard-science instead of science-based, I'll edit accordingly. $\endgroup$ – Hendrik Lie Jan 10 at 23:55
  • $\begingroup$ then it looks good to me! Admittedly, I’m not a physicist and also don’t understand the equations, but I think it’s ready for Main in its current form. You can leave it here a bit longer if you’re really nervous about something, but the Sandbox has been pretty quiet lately $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 11 at 19:26
  • $\begingroup$ @Dubukay I see, I'll wait for another day, in case someone else wish to give another feedback, and probably edit it more. Thank you for your feedback. $\endgroup$ – Hendrik Lie Jan 12 at 7:37

In this premise, a culture has developed where inheritance flows through the female line. There is a Queen Mother, matriarch of the ruling family, who inherited her title from her mother. Her eldest son will be King, and her daughters will be princesses. When the King dies, the candidates for succession will be his sister's sons. An assembly made up of elected noblewomen would choose the successor to the throne. So the crown passes from uncle to nephew, maintaining the female lineage.

This world's religion worships a mother goddess. All things originally come from her, therefore all authority passes down through the female line, such as inheritance, titles, etc. However, there was a period in history in which a large number of the population were rendered sterile due to a plague. As a man can father many children at a time, culture evolved to introduce polygamy into society. The plague eventually ran its course, but the tradition continued. the King will have many wives (daughters of noble families), but none of his sons stand to inherit his position. In such a society, the uncle-nephew relationship supersedes the father-son relationship.

I would like to keep the rule of succession from king to nephew stable, but have encountered some issues with this. For starts, it is likely that a king would prefer his own son over his nephew, and will probably elect them to high positions in the government. When the king dies, the son could easily just take power from the true heir by force. Also, it is likely there will be at least some degree of rivalry between the different fathers of a sister's children, given their social status. Such issues can breed instability or civil war.

How can I introduce stability into this system and ensure that lines of succession remain sustainable?

  • $\begingroup$ "The rule of succession from king to nephew": you must actually spell out the rule. What nephew? The firstborn son of the eldest sister, the firstborn son among all the sisters, the favorite nephew selected by the king, any of the newphews selected by the assembly of noblewomen? Please also consider a comparison with systems other than the boring western European rule of primogeniture; for example, the agnatic seniority (complicated by izgoi) system of the Rurikids of old Russia, etc. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Dec 1 '18 at 21:03
  • $\begingroup$ Also, you may want to explain what you mean by "stable"; for example, despite their messy rules for succession, the Rurikids ruled Russia for seven and a half centuries, from Rurik the Varangian to Vasili IV. Do you want to avoid civil war? Do you want to avoid periods of uncertainty? Why do you believe that the specific rules of succession are more important than the rule of law in general? $\endgroup$ – AlexP Dec 1 '18 at 21:12
  • $\begingroup$ AlexP I edited question to add more detail. Can this be posted? $\endgroup$ – Incognito Dec 2 '18 at 18:24
  • $\begingroup$ Leave it in the sandbox for another 24 hours just to see whether anybody else has something to say. My personal opinion is that the question, although quite broad, is not too broad and is answerable. You may not necessarily be happy with the answers, because, as I see it, you are seeking a solution to the wrong problem. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Dec 2 '18 at 19:34
  • $\begingroup$ Hi Incognito, this is a reminder about keeping the Sandbox clean: are you still working on this draft? If so, please edit it to show how we may further help you. If not, please edit your draft to shorten it to something like "Not posted: title" and delete it. The current guidelines are that a draft is eligible for deletion after 30 days without an edit from the OP and a comment like this one for at least 7 days. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 10 at 20:16

Title: Technological & Cultural Flow between Modern Days & Ancient Egypt

18 children (ages 2-14) travel from a small American town in 1995 to the year 1312 BCE in ancient Egypt. They stay with Jewish slaves in their village (the structure is more serfs than slaves) for 9 days, then everyone takes off for the Exodus. Over the next 3 months or so, the group travels some and mostly camps at Mount Sinai.

The children’s leader, age 12, is the only one who believed the time travel could happen, but even she thought they’d be there a few hours, not stuck for months. While the other children were all told where they were going, they thought it was a game. So they have few supplies, mostly knapsacks, canteens/water bottles, sunscreen, and some snacks. Everyone has a hat and good walking shoes.

Every child has at least one Jewish grandparent, but none were raised with much (or any) Jewish culture or religion. Some of the children researched the trip ahead of time, most didn’t. Another 12 year old is a super-involved Boy Scout who brought things like a Swiss army knife, matches, compass, etc. Three others (ages 7-8) are also boy/girl scouts. Three 9-10 years olds are self-proclaimed geeks who love science and science fiction. Others have a variety of skills including classical dance, music, cooking, etc.

The Jewish (and some non-Jewish) slaves, the Hebrews, are all ages and have a variety of skills. No formal schooling, few academics. Most adults are (or were) laborers—primarily farming and brickmaking—and most of the children work in those places too. Everyone has skills in at least some of the tasks that maintain their village, including basic building/repair, cooking, brewing, weaving/sewing, gardening, and animal husbandry. Some have advanced training in things like metalwork, ceramics, shoemaking, and other crafts. As they start their journey, they will pick up mineworkers (and gem experts) as well as slaves with specialty training in the palace.

The children and the Hebrews will learn much from each other. My story focuses on what they learn about faith, spirituality, culture, and their own personal journeys. The children can also tell the Hebrews a bit about their future (“Jews will survive” and “yep, you can totally cross this sea”), but nothing too specific. My question is about the technology exchange, which I will use to flesh out the story. I assume the Hebrews will have more to teach the children. In part because a lot of them are experienced adults but also because they are living in that time and place. So much of the technology of the children’s world is pretty useless in ancient Egypt (“I have a watch and can tell you the exact time"…how is that more useful than looking at where the sun is and the quality of the light?).

Some notes:

  • For the purposes of this question, assume that the Exodus is real and more or less as described in the Torah and various Rabbinic commentaries. Assume the level of tech and culture is as multiple history writings describe it for peasantry in this time period (which still leaves a lot open to interpretation).

  • The children will leave well before the building of the Mishkan (Tabernacle). But they are friends with the 12 year old boy who will become the master builder.

  • Use a broad definition of “technology” and be sure not to focus only on traditionally male knowledge. Baking bread and brewing beer is technology as much as forging hammers.

  • Stuff that isn't really a technology, that is just cultural, is very welcome. Music, singing, and dancing all play a part in my story. Also jewelry.

  • One thing I’ve already used: The 2 year old’s siblings didn’t bring extra diapers and they’re not sure what to do. The local women teach them to leave her naked under her dress and how to cue her to go in the proper places outside. So, cultural, but a way to not be reliant on technology when you’re in a position where the tech is harmful rather than helpful (obviously they didn’t have diapers then but they did have cloth swaddling and the like. But cloth is all handmade and hard to come by in those quantities and doing laundry was hard enough in the village, and nearly impossible on the road/in camp…because of the quantity of diaper cloth needed per child times the number of children).

  • Other things I’ve thought of: The scouts teaching the Hebrews some knots they might not be familiar with. The children showing the Hebrews how their backpacks are made and they take up the idea of distributing the weight on both shoulders as a way to carry more longer. And of course some recipe exchanges.

Question: What technological and cultural ideas could the Hebrews teach the children, or the children teach the Hebrews?

  • $\begingroup$ I don't know, seems a good candidate for too broad or too story based. The main problems I see with providing a serious answer is that (1) the Hebrews / Israelites in question are purely mythical, so they do not have any specific characteristics or attributes; and (2) those are young children: they will naturally adapt to their environment and learn everything there is to learn in order to become a good Israelite, whatever that may be. I suppose you expect the answers to assume the in-story universe of the book of Exodus; I think it would help if you stated this explicitly. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Dec 3 '18 at 21:44
  • $\begingroup$ I have added the following bulleted note: For the purposes of this question, assume that the Exodus is real and more or less as described in the Torah and various Rabbinic commentaries. Assume the level of tech and culture is as multiple history writings describe it for peasantry in this time period (which still leaves a lot open to interpretation). $\endgroup$ – Cyn Dec 3 '18 at 21:51
  • $\begingroup$ I have deleted all my comments leaving only my opinion about the question being potentially too broad and too story based. You are right, the others were useless. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Dec 4 '18 at 19:01
  • $\begingroup$ @AlexP Can you not delete the comments? even if they are irrelevant? Its very confusing reading through this with Cyn just talking to himself and you only having one comment. Wouldn't it have been better to have a mod move the irrelevant parts into a chat? $\endgroup$ – Shadowzee Dec 5 '18 at 3:37
  • $\begingroup$ @Cyn I also think this question is going to end up too broad as it will likely depend on what the children have on them. Children, especially from 2-14 are going to have trouble explaining how technology will work, and it will simply sound like magic to the Hebrews. Like a TV is a box that shows pictures. It might be better to ask, what is the average uniform of a child in 1995 in America and what accessories do they have. $\endgroup$ – Shadowzee Dec 5 '18 at 4:31
  • $\begingroup$ I have already written the scene where they sit down and inventory what they all brought with them. I summarized it above and it's really not much more than that, aside from the boat they arrived in (no, not via the sea). When I think of technology, I'm not thinking engines and electronics. I'm thinking of the simple things we take foregranted, like cooking technique and carrying devices. Stuff they do, not stuff they physically have. Hence the emphasis also on cultural exchange. How can I reword the question to convey this? Would it work better as a question if I did? $\endgroup$ – Cyn Dec 5 '18 at 6:18
  • $\begingroup$ @Shadowzee: Cyn can also delete their comments. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Dec 5 '18 at 8:08
  • $\begingroup$ @Cyn I think you should split this question to just be about what the Jewish can teach the children. And have the other part about what the children can teach the Jewish in a separate question. Even then, I feel like you would brush along the too broad problem because the word culture is very broad in general. $\endgroup$ – Shadowzee Dec 5 '18 at 22:58
  • $\begingroup$ Sorry, I tend to be someone who prefers to leave conversations up unless they're extreme. I wouldn't have objected to moving it to chat, though I was done with it. I deleted most of my comments as well. BTW, I use female pronouns. $\endgroup$ – Cyn Dec 5 '18 at 23:51
  • $\begingroup$ Oy vey. I post here and get "children are more capable than you are giving them credit for" and I post on WB and get "children are stupid and can't contribute anything of value." Can't win... $\endgroup$ – Cyn Dec 7 '18 at 21:33
  • $\begingroup$ What the actual hell? The comments here were maybe my question was too broad. But no...people are arguing about the premise of my story which is not what I asked for answers about. It's gotten 19 comments at top level, 3 reasonably serious answers, 12 more comments on the answer. Then 1 upvote and 4 downvotes. Everyone has an opinion and they range from idiotic to meh. In real life, no one makes comments like these and not just because they're not rude people, but because this stuff wouldn't have occurred to them because it's bizarre. $\endgroup$ – Cyn Dec 8 '18 at 6:45
  • $\begingroup$ Hey Cyn, interesting question. Apologies for the rancorous responses you've gotten - WB can be like that sometimes. Are you still working on this question? I'm happy to add my feedback and commentary if you're still interested. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Dec 12 '18 at 20:34
  • $\begingroup$ @Dubukay, I would love to get your feedback, but keep in mind the question's been closed, so you can't add an answer there. $\endgroup$ – Cyn Dec 12 '18 at 20:46
  • $\begingroup$ No worries - I figure we can work on it here in the Sandbox and you can either edit the one that's currently up or start fresh by deleting that one and posting something new. I think you got a lot of flak from the question because it required a large suspension of disbelief; that's what commentors on both your question and the answers complained about. The suspension of disbelief was also challenging because their ability to influence things is highly dependent upon how exactly they appear, which is on you to decide as an author. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Dec 12 '18 at 20:51
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ That could be a fascinating question. I certainly don't know enough about knots or the history of knots to contribute much, but I think that question is much more on-topic and answerable than this current one. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Dec 13 '18 at 17:47

Omegaverse Society

For some reason (probably sheer variety of 'verses) I can't find any in depth analysis of this online so I'm posting this here.

Due to the many omegaverses out there, for my purposes assume the following

  • Every individual has a primary sex (male/female) and a secondary sex (alpha/beta/omega)
  • Omegas have a heat cycle, when in heat they release pheromones (Suppressants exist)
  • Alphas are especially attracted to omega pheromones
  • Betas are immune
  • All sexes can get pregnant, although omegas are more likely
  • All sexes are equally likely regardless of the parents
  • The usual characteristics of the primary sexes are retained
  • I'm not using Soulmates
  • I'm not having any intellectual/physical differences between alphas, betas and omegas other than the above


How would their society develop in the modern age given the above? I'm not really concerned about the numerous biological inconsistencies, the only thing that I'm interested in is their class system. The most important thing I need to know is how alpha/beta and beta/omega pairings might be viewed but other details are welcome

Sandbox Questions

Is this too much/too little information to base an answer on? I make a lot of bullets detailing the setting I'm in. Also, is this too broad a question (kinda falls under the too little info question)

  • $\begingroup$ Hi Blake, welcome to Worldbuilding and welcome to the Sandbox! This is an interesting question, but we're missing some information and it's currently a bit opinion-based. I don't think most users will know what an omegaverse is - I certainly didn't until after some extensive Googling. A quick introduction to what your omegaverse is, what it looks like, and how it differs from ours will be vital for giving you useful feedback on the question. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Dec 12 '18 at 20:12
  • $\begingroup$ I do think it's currently too-broad; questions about "society" almost always are. If there's a specific question, such as "how can I keep my omegas from being enslaved", that's closer to what Worldbuilding can help you answer. Asking how something would be "viewed" is also usually opinion-based or story-based; that's a decision that you as the author should make and the onus is on you to justify why your characters feel that way. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Dec 12 '18 at 20:13
  • $\begingroup$ I would suggest that rather than look how society develops (which is always too broad) you ask for a similar culture which you can than study and pull ideas from or Base it off sexual orientations (maybe?). Society is not uniform and differs across the globe with too many nuances that could be expressed properly. For example, in the modern world, we have, America, Japan, China and Saudi Arabia. Different societies in the modern world that are widely different. $\endgroup$ – Shadowzee Dec 13 '18 at 5:57
  • $\begingroup$ Hi Blake, this is a reminder about keeping the Sandbox clean: are you still working on this draft? If so, please edit it to show how we may further help you. If not, please edit your draft to shorten it to something like "Not posted: title" and delete it. The current guidelines are that a draft is eligible for deletion after 30 days without an edit from the OP and a comment like this one for at least 7 days. $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 10 at 20:18

how could creating a familiar permanently bind you to a certain type of magic?

Orgone is the measure of a person's connection with the cosmos. It is the conduit through which the power of the cosmos flows, focused through a sorcerer's will. Ritual practicioners must draw on this reserve of power to make a magic spell work. Spells require a constant infusion of Orgone through rituals that are performed inside a transmutation circle. These rituals require a number of ingredients and can last anywhere from 30 minutes to several hours depending on the spell. There are five types of magic that spells revolve around.

Enchantment Spells – These are spells designed to capture cosmic power within a crafted item, so that its power can be called upon in times of need.

Scrying Spells – These are spells designed to allow a user to perceive in ways that go beyond his fve senses.

Protection Spells – These are spells designed to ward a user, object, or location against a variety of possible harms

Transmogrifcation Spells – These are spells designed to fundamentally alter or control another being

Transmutation Spells - Changing the makeup of different materials or combining them with others to make new forms of matter.

A mage can create a familiar, creatures made purely from orgone, to assist in their rituals. They are made from a mage's souls and serve as a direct reflection of their inner self. They may have unique abilities, but their main purpose is to serve as magical batteries. They allow a mage the ability to bypass ritual circles and their ingredients to perform spells, reducing time frame from hours to literally minutes. They also make the particular spell more powerful, allowing mages to become masters of their craft. The drawback is that it limits a mage to one of the five types of spells. While these specialist mages are the most powerful individuals in their field, once they choose which form of magic to master, they lose the ability to perform the other types forever.

I need a good reason for why a familiar binds their mage to a particular type of magic. Why would it make you all powerful in one but block your access to others?


How can the church prevent the spread of mass media across Europe during the medieval period?

How can the church stop the Mass media from spreading throughout medieval Europe?

The Protestant Reformation in the 15th century was devastating for the catholic church because it broke its exclusive hold over Christendom and ended up leading to the diverse branches of today. Due to the overspending on monuments, selling of indulgences, and the promoting of family members to valuable offices, the church made itself vulnerable to criticisms. Martin Luther and his 95 theses, referred to as the Disposition on the Power of Indulgences, brought these actions to light and eventually led to the schism that changed Europe. The Renaissance Popes saw this as a challenge to their authority. At any other time, Luther would have just been labeled a heretic and executed. However, one thing allowed him to become immortalized in the minds of the public: Johaness Gutenberg and The printing press.

The press introduced the era of mass media and communication which changed the power structure of Europe. It broke the hold that the aristocracy had over literacy, allowing the poorer dregs of society access to education and creating the middle class.The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. The invention of the printing press removed control of written material from the Catholic Church and made it difficult for the church to inhibit the spread of what it regarded as heretical ideas.

I, Phillip J Fry, have traveled back in time to the 14th century to save my future by warning the Pope and altering the timeline. Eliminating Guttenberg would not stop the reformation, as someone else will simply come along to invent the printing press sooner or later. For the corrupt church to continue its decadence in peace, the influence of the printing press must be curtailed. What measures should the catholic church take to stop or at least delay this from happening?


What would be the biggest risks that a celestial oligarchy would want to eliminate?

On XX February 2XXX, 100,000 online players for a VRMMO were transported to a new world that seems to run off of the same rules as the VRMMO they played, but without the menus and status screens. Not only were they transported to this world, but their avatars were transported to this world as separate entities (henceforth: PCs) from the players themselves, but with all of the player's memories as well, but with the personality they played as. The effective levels of the players transported to this world is 0, with limited exceptions. Players transmigrate with the knowledge they had in their own world and a few items they had on them during the process. The levels of the PCs range from 1 to 100, depending on how much time was put into the game with that character. PCs also transmigrate with all the items they had in their inventory, and in rare cases their entire guild hall would be transported (a la Ainz Ooal Gown). The effective highest level people native to this world (henceforth: NPCs) is 39 in EXTREMELY rare circumstances, but NPCs are almost entirely level 15 and lower, with children being effectively Level 0.

Except for the Celestial race that is responsible for maintaining balance.

Celestials like angels are responsible for making sure mortals don't get to be too-powerful. At the same time, when these players and PCs transmigrated into the world, this shift in power would lead them to hunt down and kill anything they would deem to be a threat not just to the balance of the world, but their seat of power. Players have no mana unlike all other life in this world, so only PCs would be detected when they entered the world, but the Celestials would know of the players once they start hunting risks and encounter any players who have partnered with their PCs. (Consider it an innate "Sense Magic" skill.) Celestials range from between Level 1 to Level 75, but while one max-Level Celestial would be unable to defeat a Level 100 player, a sufficiently sized suicide-squad would, given the right circumstances and equipment.

That's it for the background information related to my specific situation, now here's the question-proper:

If a bunch of new people spontaneously appeared in a medieval-themed knights-and-magic world where the natural balance of the world is maintained by a celestial oligarchy, what risks would said oligarchy want to eliminate with extreme prejudice?

Thinking on this, I came up with my own answer, but am unsure if there is anything I am forgetting or outright wrong on.

  • "Foreign" Celestials (namely angels and nephilim)

The "Native" Celestials would see foreign angels as potential rivals for power and therefore as an enemy of the existing balance simply for the sin of existing.

The Native Celestials would see the nephilim as abominations for soiling their angel blood with that of human ancestry. (And if they were to learn what PCs are, then this would be equally true towards foreign angels as well in addition to the prior reason.

  • PCs over Level 20

Celestials are tasked with maintaining balance in this world. Even being Level 20 means you are a person of great comparative power to the rest of the people of the world and you could make a drastic impact on the path this world takes.

  • PCs who demonstrate ownership of Summoning Items or have access to "Foreign" Guild Halls

Magic items could wreak havoc on economies. Summoning items can give a person a personal army or fighting force. And having access to both or to a facility with potentially untold quantities of such items sounds like trouble to a group who prides itself on its power and authority.

From here on out I am no longer asking the question. This is my meta-commentary on my question.

Is this okay as is? I fear it may appear off-topic as being too much about story-building as opposed to world-building, which is a common problem I run into when asking questions, but I'm not sure how to make it more clear that I am asking about what this group in power would deem necessary to eliminate as threats without being too vague as to what the rules of my world are, basically. I also propose an answer as well with reasoning to fulfill the requirement of showing that I have done my own research into the subject. Is that okay or is that too much and therefore confusing to my point? Basically: What issues do you see? Or is it fine as-is?

  • $\begingroup$ Hi Sora, intersting question. Sadly I do think this is too story-based in its current version. Asking about the actions characters would take is pretty much what makes the story itself, so it's up to you as an author to answer that question. One good way to avoid too story-based and too-broad votes is to propose your best guess at how the Celestials would respond, and reality check it here. It sounds like you have some good ideas about what would happen - why not put those to the test rather than brainstorming new ones? $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 10 at 20:35
  • $\begingroup$ Hi @Dubukay, thank you for your reply. I'm not trying to ask about the actions they would take. I know what those are: Elimination of risks. Worldbuilding is about systems, cultures, thought processes, and world mechanics. This question is intended to focus on culture/thought processes. It's hard to be sure that I have succeeded in that respect, so that is what I need to have considered first. The idea of what would happen is obvious, but understanding the core ideology is not when the idea of hating someone who doesn't fit in is such a foreign idea to me. A real-world comparison would be the $\endgroup$ – Sora Tamashii 8 hours ago
  • $\begingroup$ Nazis (or any group advocating genocide) who had a similar ideology in a way, but targeted specific groups more harshly than others. (This is an accidental parallel that I only realized when replying to you.) But still, the ideology itself is foreign to me that I can only grasp the obvious... but even then good worldbuilding requires knowledge (at the very least) of the deeper levels of this. I don't know what they'd target as a threat, what their scapegoats would be. $\endgroup$ – Sora Tamashii 8 hours ago

World-splitting Wall: Impact on Weather


The question

I asked recently in this question how paranoid aliens afraid of going the way described in "War of the Worlds" would sequester native flora and fauna in a preserve.

One of the coolest answers I saw was for the establishment of a wall, around my nature preserve, to preserve most native wildlife in its natural form. What climate anomalies could occur on the edges of the dome?


  • The moon itself is slightly larger than Mars, and orbits a Neptune-sized planet. It takes about 50 days to complete a roughly circular orbit.
  • The moon's planet orbits at 0.63 AU, making for a 230-day orbital period
  • The wall splits the moon directly in half, and is 10-15 miles tall
  • The wall is covered/painted with a dirt-like material, and has psychological deterrents to any would-be wall-crossers.

Sandbox Questions

What issues would you have with this question?

  • $\begingroup$ Yeah, will do that in one sec $\endgroup$ – JavaScriptCoder Dec 13 '18 at 0:31
  • $\begingroup$ Have added edits. $\endgroup$ – JavaScriptCoder Dec 14 '18 at 15:21
  • $\begingroup$ Hi JavaScriptCoder, good edit! It's much clearer and more answerable. The biggest things I think we'll need to know are 1) whether the moon has an Earth-like environment or whether we're deriving climate effects from basic physics and 2) how large the moon is $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 10 at 20:23
  • $\begingroup$ Some comments as far as clarity goes: you only mention a "moon" in the notes on the question - I'd introduce that information earlier and provide some additional info about the world. Also, you say in one place that the wall goes all the way up to space, and in another that it's 10 miles tall. Finally, you've still got some references to a "dome" in there - maybe take those out or replace "dome" with "wall"? $\endgroup$ – Dubukay Jan 10 at 20:25

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