To answer your request first:
There is no way for the 'admins' (further called Moderators or Mods) to tell you who close-votes something.
Even if there were it would be morally wrong to do so by them.
Now let's address your reasons:
Reason number 1: In order to cast close-votes a person first needs to earn 3000 rep - while it is possible to reach this number by sheer tenacity and just spamming bad questions, most people that have enough rep for close-votes have proven to show fair and valid judgement.
Also if a question gets put-on-hold (not even closed yet, see that?!), the reason it was put on hold for, as well as the users that voted to put it on hold, are listed in the notice.
Reason number 2: No you cannot block users from answering your questions. But the system can block users from doing so based on certain metrics. We recently had a user that was prevented from posting any new questions for example.
You can though block users on the chat, if you don't want to see/talk to them.
And if that is not enough, mods have & use the ability to give users absolute timeouts if their behaviour necessitates such.
The system behind this site is structured to allow everyone to contribute; blocking out certain people based on the mood of a single person would be counter-intuitive to the Q&A format on here as well. Would you prevent people from finding your questions, thus creating duplicates and getting them closed for no reason they can see?
Reason number 3: Close-voting something is not wrong it is part of the system these sites are built on. Close-voting for no apparent reason can be considered bad behaviour at most, but even then it takes 5 votes to put a question on hold, and then it can be reopened pretty quickly if anyone deems this unfair/unbased.
Regarding your proof: The reason given for the only close-vote on your question states that the voter thinks your question too story based. This is perfectly valid judgement for them, thus they voted.
Reading through it I assume them to judge so based on the fact that you write that your king wants them to smell really bad (paraphrased) and the fact that you're hand-waving their super-immune-systems so you can justify your pestilence-squad.