As another answer says, viewing vote breakdowns is a privilege that comes when you get a little more rep.
If you really want to know about a specific case and it's a recent post, though, you can work it out from your reputation history. (For older questions this would require a lot more digging.) Click on your user name and then click on the "reputation" tab. This shows you the breakdown of all votes you received per post per day (plus anything else that affected your reputation, like approved edits). You can count it up from there.
The information is actually available through the Stack Exchange API and I know there's a user script out there somewhere that fetches the data, so even without 1000 rep you can see the vote breakdowns. The reason the don't just give this to everybody is that using it creates extra load on the servers -- and while your one mouse click might not seem like a big deal to you, added up over the millions of visits per month (across the network), it's more significant.