The secret to writing a good question is very similar to the secret of writing a good book, or article, or similar. Catch attention, hold it, and direct it.
Catch people's attention with a good title. This should describe what the question is. If it can be humorous, so much the better, but it is very important that the title is clear and easily understandable. It's the first thing people see of your question and the major deciding factor in whether or not people click on it.
Holding attention is the prerogative of your question body. You should be interesting and relatable: as HDE says, if your question is about some highly specialised area of special additional nuclear relativity (is that even a thing?) then most people will give up thinking that they couldn't possibly answer it. Similarly, badly-written questions often get on people's nerves: a few grammar or spelling mistakes here and there are perfectly forgivable, but if it's so bad that it takes effort to read the post, I'll leave about two seconds after downvoting.
Your question body also needs to direct attention. Many good questions have several aspects to them, and without direction the answers would be varied in the topics they talk about. If you're looking for answers on one specific bit, you need to be able to tell people what that bit is. Directing attention is also about making sure that people know your question is on-topic, not too broad, and all the rest of that.
There is also, to some extent, luck involved: unless you're a very good sociologist who can predict what people will react to next (in which case, why are you not employed in advertising?), you will never know if your question will be the next big one or not.